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With permission of Ken Stone, the author.\n[[Category:CGS image]]
This information is for doing DIY, repaneling, and/or repairs on [[Eurorack|Euro systems]]. It's not comprehensive, everyone has preferences, but lists the common, major or most-wanted parts in the Eurorack format, and/or what sort of things will work.
 
 
== Front panels ==
 
=== Specifications ===
 
The Eurorack format was developed in parallel by [[Analogue Systems]] and [[Doepfer Musikelektronik GmbH|Doepfer]], with different approaches to module power connectors and front panel mounting holes. These days the Doepfer standard predominates.<ref>[http://www.muffwiggler.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=8419&start=all&postdays=0&postorder=asc Analogue Systems: Doepfer compatibility], Muff Wiggler forum, October 2009</ref><ref>[http://electro-music.com/forum/topic-36446.html Analogue Systems or Doepfer as 1st Modular system?], Electro-music.com forum, August 2009</ref> The format is based on [//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deutsches_Institut_f%C3%BCr_Normung DIN] 41494 [[Eurocard]] standard.<ref name="hinton">[http://www.muffwiggler.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=45388&start=0&postdays=0&postorder=asc Some general questions on euro-designing] by [[Graham Hinton]], Muff Wiggler forum, October 2011</ref>
 
==== Panels ====
 
Doepfer specifies the Eurorack front panel material as 2&nbsp;mm anodized aluminium.<ref name="a100m">Doepfer [http://www.doepfer.de/a100_man/a100m_e.htm A-100 Construction Details]</ref> In practice panels from other manufacturers may slightly differ, e.g. Synthwerks use the closest gauge that [http://metalphoto.com/ Metalphoto] offer which is 0.0625" (1.59&nbsp;mm). Also check data sheets for front panel parts, e.g. the maximum recommended thickness for [[3.5&nbsp;mm Cliff 1384 jack]]s is 2.5&nbsp;mm.<ref name="guage">[http://www.muffwiggler.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=51475&start=all&postdays=0&postorder=asc Aluminum Panel Guage???], Muff Wiggler forum, January 2012</ref>
 
Front panel dimensions in the the Eurorack format are specified in U and HP not in inches or millimeters. One U (unit) or in German HE (höhen einheit) is 1.75&nbsp;inches equivalent to 44.45&nbsp;mm. The panels height is [[3U]] (3x1.75"=5.25" or 133.35&nbsp;mm) less any allowance for mounting rail flange. Width is measured in HP (horizontal pitch) or in German TE (teilungs einheiten); 1 HP is 5.08&nbsp;mm, 1/5", 0.2" or 200mil. The actual width of a front panel is a few tenth of a&nbsp;mm less than whatever multiple of 5.08&nbsp;mm it is, to give some tolerance for final assembly. A [[19-inch rack]] has a usable width of 84 HP.<ref name="hinton" /><ref name="a100m" /><ref name="confused">[http://www.muffwiggler.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=55022&start=all&postdays=0&postorder=asc confused about euro panel spec standard.], Muff Wiggler forum, March 2012</ref><ref name="measures">[http://www.electro-music.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=18281&postorder=asc Standard measurements in front panels], Electro-music.com forum, May 2007</ref><ref>[http://electro-music.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=17529&start=125 Thomas Henry's SN76477 Super Controller Module] by [[Matthias Herman]], Electro-music.com forum, July 2007</ref>
 
 
The vertical space available between mounting rails is:
 
* Schroff, 112.2&nbsp;mm (4.415 inches)
 
* Gie-Tec, Proma (now defunct) and TipTop Z-Rails, 112.5mm (4.429 inches)
 
* Vector, 115.1mm (4.531 inches)
 
These don't include a tolerances for the screw hole in the panel nor for the nut in the rail moving up and down. It's better to give a little more clearance than suggested by these figures.<ref name="six">[http://www.muffwiggler.com/forum/viewtopic.php?p=1695905 Six jacks in euro, what is the preferred configuration?], Muff Wiggler forum, October 2014</ref>
 
 
==== Panel mounting holes ====
 
If the Doepfer specification is followed, or rails with sliding nuts are used, elongated holes are not required. These are useful for non-standard panel widths like the Piston Honda's and to compensate for for manufacturing tolerances of the panel width or hole position. They help to fit the modules flush against one another.<ref name="oval">[http://www.muffwiggler.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=126980 Euro modules – Oval mounting holes], Muff Wiggler forum, December 2014</ref> In a double width case, there will be a gap where the two threaded inserts meet, unless e.g. single 168 HP tiptop Z rails are used.<ref>[http://www.muffwiggler.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=69180 The Eurorack Charter?], Muff Wiggler forum, October 2012</ref>
 
 
Oval holes were originally for mixed Analogue Systems and Doepfer systems. The AS holes are 0.2" from the panel edge and the Doepfer holes are 0.3" from the edge. The oval holes were originally used to allow these modules to be placed in the same threaded rows without having the 1/2 HP gap that would otherwise result. These days the oval holes are mostly just centered on the Doepfer spacing.<ref name="oval"/>
 
 
For front panels up to 10 HP two mounting holes are sufficient, wider than this and four mounting holes are usual. To attach the modules to the mounting rails M3x6 DIN 7985 cross recessed pan head machine screws are used. The mounting hole diameter is 3.2mm (0.13"), centered 3mm from top and bottom edges and 7.45mm from the left edge. The horizontal distance between the mounting holes has to be a multiple of 5.08mm.<ref name="hinton" /><ref name="a100m" /><ref name="confused" />
 
==== Mounting rails ====
 
[[File:Eurorack panels on Gie-Tec rails.jpg|thumb|200px|Eurorack panels mounted on Gie-Tec rails, with sliding nuts. Note the lip along one edge of the rail.]][[File:Eurorack panels on Vector rails.jpg|thumb|200px|Eurorack panels mounted on Vector rails, with sliding nuts.]]Unless attaching the panels directly into the wood of an enclosure; Doepfer aluminium mounting rails from Schroff or Gie-Tech usually have a 1.2mm lip and are fitted with a number of square nuts or a threaded strip with M3 tapped holes, spaced with 5.08mm between centres.<ref>TipTop [http://www.tiptopaudio.com/manuals/z-rails.pdf Z-Rails dimensions]</ref> Be careful not to get Schroff rails that take M2.5 screws.<ref>[http://www.muffwiggler.com/forum/viewtopic.php?p=249254&sid=159dd8651e429dd3d944d75988436079 Schroff Rails for a Eurorack Rast?]</ref> Vector T-Strut rails do not have a lip and take a M2.5 threaded strip or 4-40 square nuts.<ref>[http://www.vectorelect.com/Catpdf/New%20Page%2049.pdf VectorPak T-Struts]</ref> Nuts are more fiddly than threaded strip, but the modules can then be butted flush against each other, for example when Analogue Sytem and Doepfer-style modules share the same rack rails.<ref>[https://www.gearslutz.com/board/electronic-music-instruments-electronic-music-production/814685-why-no-talk-analoge-systems-modules.html Why no talk of Analoge Systems modules?], Gearslutz.com forums, February 2013</ref>
 
 
Brands using M2.5 square nuts or tapped strips and M2.5x6mm machine screws: [[4ms]], [[Elby Designs]] (SRS), [[Enclave]], [[Rittal]]<ref name="enc">[http://www.muffwiggler.com/forum/viewtopic.php?p=1612192&sid=46c8558b1dfe3ee80c6a2ef51a264eb1 Enclave cases rails...], Muff Wiggler forum, July 2014</ref><ref name="sergesque">[https://www.muffwiggler.com/forum/viewtopic.php?p=1385152&highlight=#1385152 &#91;IC&#93; 4U Single Function 'Sergesque' panels], Muff Wiggler forum, 13 December 2013</ref>
 
 
Brands using Vector rails with M2.5 square nuts or tapped strips and M2.5x6mm machine screws: [[Erthenvar]], [http://www.goike.com/node/4 Goike]<ref name="sergesque"/>
 
 
Brands using Gie-Tec rails with M3 nuts or tapped strip and M3x6 machine screws: [[Tiptop]], [[Gorillabox]], [[Doepfer]]<ref name="enc" />
 
 
Eurorack rack fittings can be bought from:
 
* Clicks & Clocks:[http://clicksclocks.de/795 DIY Eurorack Materials and Parts: All You Need?], Germany
 
* Elby Designs:[http://www.elby-designs.com/contents/en-us/d39.html Construct-A-Rack], Australia
 
Tiptop Z-Rails can be purchased from:
 
* [http://www.tiptopaudio.com/zrails.php Tiptop Audio]
 
Vector mounting rails can be purchased from:
 
* [http://erthenvar.com/store/eurodiy/casehardware Erthenvar]
 
* Component suppliers such as [http://www.digikey.ca/product-detail/en/TS169/V2002-ND/280464?itemSeq=145033994&uq=635291864084806300 Digi-Key], [http://uk.farnell.com/vector-electronics/ts169/mounting-rail/dp/1723261 Farnell] or [http://uk.mouser.com/ProductDetail/Vector/TS169/?qs=2uJXkMYZVXPYqAAhJk9hwA== Mouser]
 
<!--
 
==== Fitting mounting rails into an enclosure ====
 
[http://loudestwarning.tumblr.com/4Umodular 4U modular], Loudest Warning blog
 
-->
 
 
=== Blank panels ===
 
6061 aluminum alloy, T3 or T6 temper, is easy to come by, can be easily worked. Thickness usually ranges between 1.5 mm (0.62") and 2.5 mm (0.12") but see what is standard for the format, e.g. a thickness of 2 mm (0.08") for [[3U]]. Softer 1100-H aluminium alloy from [http://metalphoto.com/ MetalPhoto] and 1.59 mm (0.625") thick, is used for many Euro panels but is usually punched rather than drilled.<ref>[https://www.muffwiggler.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=86107 What type of aluminium is used for faceplates?], Muff Wiggler forum, June 2013</ref><ref name="guage"/>
 
 
For small panels it's cheapest to buy Doepfer pre-made blank panels. For wider panels it might be worth getting them done by Frontpanel Express, without labeling and with whatever holes are required. Getting aluminum cut by general online metal suppliers is going to deliver metal that is approximate in size and the edges will need filing down to get it to the correct size.<ref name="guage"<ref>[http://www.muffwiggler.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=50409&start=all&postdays=0&postorder=asc Sheet Metal (aluminium) UK], Muff Wiggler forum, January 2012</ref>
 
* [http://store.synthrotek.com/blank_eurorack_panels Synthrotek], USA
 
* [http://www.reichelt.de/Baugruppentraeger/BGT-TFP-312/3/index.html?;ACTION=3;LA=446;ARTICLE=34002;GROUPID=3363;artnr=BGT+TFP+312;SID=26PTQzxKwQARoAAHOZA-w413b4ed837993f58e14dcd8d28089d58 Reichelt Elektronik], Germany
 
 
Suppliers:
 
* [http://www.onlinemetals.com/merchant.cfm?id=239&step=2&top_cat=60 OnlineMetals.com], USA – large blank panels
 
* [http://www.allmetalparts.co.uk/ All Metal Parts], UK – large blank panels
 
* [http://metalsupermarkets.co.uk/metals/consumer-guide/aluminum/ Metal Supermarkets], UK and USA
 
* [http://uk.farnell.com/jsp/search/browse.jsp?N=2031+203472&Ntk=gensearch&Ntt=schroff&Ntx=mode+matchallpartial Farnell]
 
* [http://www.aluminiumwarehouse.co.uk/sheet_calc.php Aluminium Warehouse], UK
 
* [http://metaloffcuts.co.uk/ MetalOffCuts], UK
 
 
=== Custom panels ===
 
Custom panels can be manufactured by:
 
* [http://www.bigbluewave.co.uk/resynthesis/resynthesis_home.htm Re:Synthesis], UK
 
* [http://www.frontpanelexpress.com/ Front Panel Express], USA
 
* [http://www.schaeffer-ag.de/ Schaeffer], EU
 
For FPE and Schaeffer, you need to supply the blank Euro panel.
 
=== Project panels ===
 
Panels for specific projects can be purchased from:
 
* [http://grayscale.info/panels/ Grayscale], USA
 
* [http://synthcube.com/cart/index.php?route=product/category&path=74_76&limit=300 synthCube], USA
 
* [http://www.thonk.co.uk/product-category/panel/ Thonk], UK
 
* [http://www.synthpanels.com/ Synth Panels], USA
 
<!--
 
=== Front panel labelling options ===
 
Screen printing
 
* [http://www.stereoping.com/eurorack-frontplatten-erstellen-mit-der-toner-transfer-methode/?lang=en Front panel labelling with the toner transfer method]
 
* [http://www.instructables.com/id/How-to-etch-aluminum-panel-labelsdesigns-with-a-r/?ALLSTEPS How to etch aluminum panel labels/designs with a reusable acid mix]
 
-->
 
== Front panels parts ==
 
''The lists in this section need checking and tidying up.''
 
 
Avoid cheap parts, especially if mechanical. Invest in quality, you always get what you pay for. Otherwise your entire system might later develop intermittent faults.<ref>[http://www.muffwiggler.com/forum/viewtopic.php?p=861269 On cheap parts...], Muff Wiggler forum, July 2012</ref><ref>[http://www.muffwiggler.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=108045&start=all&postdays=0&postorder=asc The Pitfalls of Choosing Quality Brands of Components?], Muff Wiggler forum, March 2014</ref> Vertical mount front panel components will need to of a similar height to neatly fit the gap between the PCB and front panel.
 
 
In order to construct low profile Eurorack modules '''vertical mount components''' are required. These allow the [[PCB]] to be mounted parallel to the front panel, keeping module depth to a minimum.<ref name="erthenvar">[http://erthenvar.com/store/accessories/3.5mm-vertical-mount-jacks 3.5mm Vertical Mount Jacks], Erthenvar</ref>
 
 
=== 3.5mm jack sockets ===
 
These are '''not''' 1/8 inch but are 3.5mm.<ref name="techqs">[http://www.muffwiggler.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=33821&start=all&postdays=0&postorder=asc Some Eurorack technical questions], Muff Wiggler forum, April 2011</ref> Popular brands of vertical mount 3.5mm mono jacks for Eurorack are Cliff (used by [[Doepfer]]), Erthenvar aka Flight of Harmony, Kobiconn (used by [[Cwejman]], [[Make Noise]], [[Malekko]] and [[Metasonix]]) and Switchcraft. These are available switched (for [[normalisation]]) and unswitched.<ref name="planb">[http://www.muffwiggler.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=1750&start=all&postorder=asc Plan B/Cliff Jacks], Muff Wiggler forum, September 2008</ref><ref>[http://www.muffwiggler.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=96727&start=all&postdays=0&postorder=asc Have I bought the wrong jacks for eurorack?], Muff Wiggler forum, November 2013</ref> Erthenvar 3.5mm vertical mount jacks with a thread diameter about 5.9mm (0.232"), will fit well with panel drill holes of 6.0 to 6.5mm diameter.<ref name="erthenvar"/><ref name="msx">[http://www.modularsquare.com/Metasonix-R54-s868.htm Metasonix R54]</ref><ref>[http://www.muffwiggler.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=73406&start=all&postdays=0&postorder=asc Erthenvar 3.5mm Vertical Mount Jacks], Muff Wiggler forum, December 2012</ref>
 
Suppliers:
 
==== Cliff horizontal PCB mount ====
 
* Newark:[http://canada.newark.com/cliff-electronic-components/cl1384/connector-stereo-jack-pcb/dp/36X2438?ost=cl1384 3.5mm mono PCB jack socket]
 
* Rapid:[http://www.rapidonline.com/Cables-Connectors/3-5mm-Mono-PCB-jack-socket-63491 3.5mm mono PCB jack socket]
 
==== Vertical PCB mount ====
 
[[File:PistonHondaInternals.jpg|thumb|200px|Vertical mounted potentiometer and two hacked to fit Kobiconn 16PJ138 panel mounting jack sockets in the [[Harvestman Piston Honda]].]]
 
Vertical mount 3.5 mm jack sockets are hard to find. Options include:
 
* [http://www.cliffuk.co.uk/products/jacksockets/js2535.htm Cliff], used by [[Doepfer]]
 
* Erthenvar [http://erthenvar.com/store/accessories/3.5mm-vertical-mount-jacks 3.5mm vertical mount jacks], switched
 
* [http://www.jalco.co.jp/eng/products/jack/miniature_jack.html Jalco YK21-5157] and variations. 10.5mm high versions and in mono, unthreaded bush
 
* Mouser:[http://uk.mouser.com/Search/ProductDetail.aspx?R=16PJ138 Kobiconn 16PJ138]
 
* Farnell:[http://uk.farnell.com/lumberg/1502-03/socket-3-5mm-jack-chassis/dp/1270966 Lumberg 1502 03] looks like a wired chassis socket with solder tags, it also has a PCB template
 
* QingPu, available from [http://www.thonk.co.uk/product-category/diy-accessories/jacks/ Thonk]:
 
** [http://www.qingpu-electronics.com/en/products/WQP-PJ3410-54.html WQP-PJ3410], plastic bush
 
** [http://www.qingpu-electronics.com/en/products/WQP-PJ3010BM-34.html WQP-PJ3010BM], metal bush model with two ground lugs. PCB to panel gaps of 9.0 to 12.0 mm look feasible, with the lower values achieved by bending the four feet diagonally or at 90 degrees.
 
** [http://www.qingpu-electronics.com/en/products/WQP-PJ301M-12-306.html WQP-PJ301M-12], an alternative to Kobiconn 16PJ138, all PCB mount pins, with the reliable beryllium copper spring
 
* Rapid:[http://www.rapidonline.com/cables-connectors/3-5mm-unswitched-stereo-vertical-jack-socket-20-1655 TruConnect PJ-360], stereo, unthreaded bush
 
 
==== Wired/panel mount ====
 
* Mouser:[http://uk.mouser.com/ProductDetail/Kobiconn/16PJ138/?qs=sGAEpiMZZMv0W4pxf2HiV6YU8TCM0qP%252bVS23qqYdSEM%3d Kobiconn 16PJ138], mono 3.5mm, switched
 
 
=== Potentiometers and controllers ===<!-- check this section for accuracy -->
 
[[File:WMDInternals.jpg|200px|thumb|right|Vertical mount potentiometers in the [[WMD Gamma Wave Source]]. The green one is a BI Technologies P0915N.]]
 
==== Horizontal PCB mount ====
 
* Mouser:[http://www.mouser.com/Search/Refine.aspx?Keyword=311-1902F 311-1902F]
 
* SmallBear:[http://smallbear-electronics.mybigcommerce.com/pc-mount-right-angle-3/ PC Mount Right-Angle potentiometers]
 
* SmallBear SKU 1012A<!-- link? -->
 
* Tayda SKU A-1847<!-- link? -->
 
==== Vertical PCB mount ====
 
* Thonk:[http://www.thonk.co.uk/shop/alpha-9mm-pots/ Alpha 9mm Pots]
 
* Mouser:[http://uk.mouser.com/Search/Refine.aspx?Keyword=rk12l Alpha RK12L] types
 
* Mouser:[http://nl.mouser.com/ProductDetail/BI-Technologies/P0915N-EC15BR100K/?qs=sGAEpiMZZMuarXojuOTscyIaXMp8bhnndlJQJbDaOdU%3d BI Technologies 10.5mm high linear pots]
 
* [http://www.bourns.com/ProductFamily.aspx?name=potentiometers Bourns]:
 
** PDB12-M, PCB mount, 9mm high, no thread, 12mm package
 
** PTV09A-4
 
** Farnell:[http://uk.farnell.com/bourns/3310-001-503l/potentiometer-50k/dp/9354000 3310Y series], 5mm deep with 6mm of thread so may be too low to be used easily
 
** PTV111-3 7.5 mm high body with 5.0 mm high bushing, available with centre detent
 
** Digital continuous encoders for microcontroller based products
 
* Vishay:
 
** P12 series 11mm to panel
 
** [http://www.vishay.com/docs/51047/p9.pdf P9] vertical mount 7mm high with 7mm bushing, only up to 10V
 
 
=== Switches ===<!-- This needs tidying up. -->
 
==== Wired/panel mount ====
 
* SmallBear SKU 0221C1
 
* Jameco 317236
 
** 0.55" 136241
 
** 19.8mm 264990
 
** 33.3mm 264946
 
* Mouser 633-M201901-RO
 
** SP3T toggle switch 633-M202402-RO
 
** 633-FB15ANEP2<ref name="build">[https://www.muffwiggler.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=47067&postdays=0&postorder=desc&start=475&sid=225da015fa78dc8d1229c945333e8443 BUILD - CGS Euro Modules], Muff Wiggler forum, November 2011</ref>
 
 
=== LEDs ===
 
==== Wired/panel mount ====
 
* Mouser 3mm LED 593-2000C (C stands for clear)<ref name="build"/>
 
 
== PCB dimensions and mounting ==
 
These days Eurorack modules tend to mount the PCB parralel to the front panel, held in place by the pots, jacks and switches.<ref name="six">[http://www.muffwiggler.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=123605 Six jacks in euro, what is the preferred configuration?], Muff Wiggler forum</ref> Modules with wired front panel components cost more to manufacture than PCB mounted, however these electro-mechanical components have limited lifetimes and while PCB mounted parts can be repaired it's not as easily as wired components. Also PCB mounted components mean the board is designed around specific parts. If any of these parts goes out of production the modules have to be redesigned, with the additional cost of updating the PCBs.<ref name="planb"/>
 
 
The vertical distance between the mounting holes on Eurorack rails is 122.5mm apart (4.823"). Based on the manufacturer's drawings for the most common rails used in Euro cases, the clear space between pairs of rails is:
 
* 112.2mm, 4.415" = Schroff
 
* 112.5mm, 4.429" = Gie-Tec and TipTop Z-Rails
 
* 115.1mm, 4.531" = Vector
 
Those don't include the tolerances (slop) of the nut in the rail moving up and down and the screw hole in the front panel. These can cause the rails to be closer or further apart when any given module is tightened in. It's better to try to give a little more clearance and not count on these exact figures.<ref name="six" />
 
 
To fit between the mounting rails the maximum vertical PCB size can be from 108mm (4.25") to 110mm. The width of the PCB needs to be a touch less than that of the front panel, whilst allowing for clearance and taking tolerances into consideration.<ref name="hinton" /><ref name="six" /><ref name="erthenvar"/>
 
 
=== Stacked PCBs ===
 
Stacked PCBs can be connected with standard 0.1" single and double row male/female pin headers. These combine to a height of 7/16 inch or 11mm and boards can be mounted to each other with spacers of this length.<ref name="hw">[http://www.muffwiggler.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=126900 Hardware for stacked PCBs], Muff Wiggler forum</ref>
 
 
Don't use tools you value highly, the headers are made of brittle glass filled epoxy which will damage the edge of any blades used to cut it. To get the single row male headers to length, grip the last pin of the length you want firmly in pliers and snap the rest off. The female headers don't snap easily so first pull the pins out of the body at the point where you want it to snap, then file the ends smooth. Alternately combine smaller lengths to make up the length required. To get them to butt against each other at 0.1" if there is extra plastic on the ends file it down.<ref name="hw" />
 
 
Suitable parts can be purchased for example:<ref name="hw"/>
 
* [http://www.mouser.com/ProductDetail/3M-Electronic-Solutions-Division/929974-01-36-RK/?qs=Z7nQflo5OWeXTtG8NqxhFQ%3D%3D 517-929974-01-36-RK], Mouser female 2.54mm pin header, 36 way, tin plated copper
 
* [http://www.mouser.com/ProductDetail/3M-Electronic-Solutions-Division/929834-01-36/?qs=QV10cN0MjFtGMxJSq6rXkQ%3D%3D 517-834-01-36], Mouser male 2.54mm pin header, 36 way, tin plated copper
 
* [http://www.mouser.com/ProductDetail/Harwin/R30-1001102/?qs=%2fha2pyFaduh3QY4G1og6YGrzdLjrFnZGRQnWZYca8amFflum8SkGQA%3d%3d 855-R30-1001102], Mouser M3x11mm hex spacer. Fit to the PCB with M3x5mm machine screws.
 
== Internal connectors ==
 
=== Power connectors ===
 
Do not mix terminals and headers made of different metals. With dissimilar metals the contact resistance will go up, causing all sorts of problems.<ref>[http://www.pinrepair.com/connect/ Molex Connectors Explained, as used in Pinball.]</ref>
 
 
==== Caution ====
 
'''Never trust the ribbon cable or the coloured wire.''' Before connection examine the module, the power distribution bus and the ribbon cable to ensure that matching connections will be made at either end. Even with [[shrouded header]]s don't plug the cable in because it fits, always first ensure the correct connections will be made.<ref name="def">[http://www.muffwiggler.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=15109&start=all&postdays=0&postorder=asc The Definitive Connecting Power Thread], Muff Wiggler forum, April 2010</ref>
 
 
==== Doepfer ====
 
Doepfer modules, (the de facto standard)<ref name="hinton" /> use two row of 8 [[pin header|male pin headers]] for connecting power and [[normalising]] [[CV/Gate]]. The pins are 0.1" (2.54mm) apart and at a 0.1" pitch. The interconnection is done via ribbon cable with 1.27mm (0.05") pitch, and using female sockets, 16-pin to the supply bus and either 16 or 10-pin to the module. The colored wire on the ribbon cable indicates -12V.<ref>Doepfer [http://www.doepfer.de/a100_man/a100t_e.htm Technical Details A-100]</ref><ref name="ta">[http://analogue-heaven.1065350.n5.nabble.com/some-help-building-a-rack-for-doepfer-tp25377p25380.html Re: some help building a rack for doepfer] by [[Tony Allgood]], Analogue Heaven email list, 29 June 2006</ref><ref name="def"/><ref name="dcon">[http://www.muffwiggler.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=37111&start=all&postdays=0&postorder=asc Doepfer connectors?], Muff Wiggler forum, June 2011</ref> Pins are numbered from pin 1 with even numbers along one side and the odd numbered ones along the other.<ref>[http://connector.pinoutsguide.com/16_pin_IDC_male/ 16 pin IDC male connector diagram and applications pinouts]</ref>
 
 
==== Cwejman ====
 
[[Cwejman]] uses the same connectors as Doepfer, however +5V is unused. Also on 10 pin connectors the coloured wire indicates Gate and on 16 pin connectors it indicates +12V.<ref>[http://cwejman.net/ribbon_cable.pdf Cwejman ribbon cables]</ref>
 
 
Pin assignments with reference to the front panel for up, on the PCB component side pin 1 is the uppermost on the left:
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
!Pins!!Function
 
|-
 
|1,16||Gate
 
|-
 
|2,15||CV
 
|-
 
|3,14||+5V (unused on Cwejman)
 
|-
 
|4,13||+12V
 
|-
 
|5,6,7,10,11,12||ground
 
|-
 
|8,9||-12V
 
|}
 
 
Suppliers:
 
* Unshrouded gold plated male PCB mount 2x8 pin headers (Rapid [http://www.rapidonline.com/cables-connectors/2-x-8-pin-header-2-54mm-pitch-3a-gold-plated-50-8041 50-8041])
 
<!-- Add for shrouded -->
 
* IDC female connector with strain relief 10 pin (Rapid [http://www.rapidonline.com/cables-connectors/harting-09-18-510-6813-idc-female-connector-strain-relief-10-pin-2-54mm-51-9587 51-9587], [http://www.rapidonline.com/cables-connectors/2-54mm-pitch-10-way-idc-cable-mounting-socket-19-1017 19-1017], Mouser [http://fi.mouser.com/Search/ProductDetail.aspx?R=61201023021virtualkey%2051110000virtualkey710-61201023021 710-61201023021])
 
* IDC female connector with strain relief 16 pin (Rapid [http://www.rapidonline.com/cables-connectors/harting-09-18-516-6813-idc-female-connector-strain-relief-16-pin-2-54mm-51-9596 51-9596], [http://www.rapidonline.com/Cables-Connectors/2-54mm-Pitch-IDC-Cable-Mounting-Sockets-519603 519603], Mouser [http://fi.mouser.com/ProductDetail/Wurth-Electronics/61201623021/?qs=sGAEpiMZZMs%252bGHln7q6pm%252bxnWLfLL2%2f9um2tdTTkBU0%3d 710-61201623021])
 
An IDC crimping tool for the assembly of IDC connectors onto flat ribbon cable:
 
* Duratool IDC crimping tool (Rapid [http://www.rapidonline.com/Tools-Equipment/IDC-Connector-Crimping-Tool-86-0860?sourceRefKey=8xLhGpE2A&filterSearchScope=1 86-0860], CPC [http://cpc.farnell.com/jsp/search/productdetail.jsp?sku=TL08619#similarProducts TL08619])
 
Ribbon cable:
 
* 10 way (Rapid [http://www.rapidonline.com/cables-connectors/ribbon-cable-grey-10-way-30-5m-01-1446 01-1446])
 
* 16 way (Rapid [http://www.rapidonline.com/cables-connectors/ribbon-cable-grey-16way-30-5m-01-1449 01-1449])
 
 
==== Analogue Systems ====
 
[[Analogue Systems]] uses 16 pin [[DIL socket]]s ([[IC]] sockets, with two rows of 8 pins). All pins connect to the ribbon cable. The Doepfer and AS methods are not compatible without some sort of converter.<ref name="ta" />
 
 
Pin assignments:
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
!Pins!!Voltage
 
|-
 
|1,2,15,16||+12V
 
|-
 
|3,4,13,14||+12V
 
|-
 
|5,6,11,12||+5V
 
|-
 
|7,8,9,10||-12V
 
|}
 
 
Suppliers:
 
* 16 pin IDC DIL plug (Rapid [http://www.rapidonline.com/cables-connectors/16-pin-idc-dil-plug-80-0205 80-0205])
 
* 16 pin turned pin IC socket (Rapid [http://www.rapidonline.com/cables-connectors/16-pin-0-3in-turned-pin-socket-22-1722 22-1722]
 
* [http://synovatron.blogspot.co.uk/2011/01/analogue-systems-to-doepfer-adaptor.html Analogue Systems to Doepfer Adaptor]
 
* [http://synovatron.blogspot.co.uk/2011/01/analogue-systems-to-doepfer-reverse.html Analogue Systems to Doepfer Reverse Adaptor]
 
 
== See also ==
 
* [[Eurocard]]
 
{{From Muff Wiggler wiki|vertical Mount Components}}
 
== References ==
 
{{reflist}}
 
== External links ==
 
* [https://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/ModularSynthPanels/ Modular Synth Panels], Yahoo group
 
* The Eurorack Database – [http://www.eurorackdb.com/node/h_diy_sources Eurorack DIY Resources]
 
* [http://mutable-instruments.net/forum/discussion/3329/diy-eurorack-modules-/p1 DIY eurorack modules...], Mutable Instruments
 
* [https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BvsTenEcY5k Analogue Systems power supply & Eurorack modular synth case]
 
* [http://www.eurorackdb.com/node/h_power_supply_list Power Supplies], The Eurorack Database
 
* [http://www.firstpr.com.au/rwi/parts/3.5&nbsp;mm-sockets/ 3.5&nbsp;mm mono sockets for vertical PCB mounting] by Robin Whittle, Real World Interfaces, 2014
 
* [http://www.mcmaster.com/#standard-aluminum-sheets/=xe70s0 About Aluminum], McMaster-Carr
 
=== Muff Wiggler forum ===
 
* [http://www.muffwiggler.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=57933&start=all&postdays=0&postorder=asc Panel mounted controls vs PCB mounted controls, and more!], April 2012
 
* [http://www.muffwiggler.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=40206&start=all&postdays=0&postorder=asc Potentiometers / Mouser], August 2011
 
* [https://www.muffwiggler.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=10682&postdays=0&postorder=asc&start=15&sid=1f9f1c0e2b280ae0ed45379d38515347 DIY euro case...rails?], December 2009
 
* [http://www.muffwiggler.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=108045&start=all&postdays=0&postorder=asc The Pitfalls of Choosing Quality Brands of Components?], March 2014
 
 
[[Category:Eurorack]]
 
[[Category:Components]]
 
[[Category:Resources]]
 
[[Category:Front panels]]
 

Revision as of 07:38, 14 October 2018

With permission of Ken Stone, the author.\n