Difference between revisions of "Envelope generator"

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[[File:ADSR parameter.svg|thumb|300px|The amplitude over time of an ADSR envelope. Only the positive half of the signal is shown.]] Sound synthesis techniques often employ an '''envelope generator''', '''contour generator''' or '''transient generator''' that controls some parameters of a signal or control voltage at any point in its duration. When it controls a [[VCA]] these together form an envelope shaper or loudness contour.<ref>''Synthesizers for musicians'' by R A Penfold, PC Publishing, 1989, {{ISBN |1-870775-01-5}}, p.21</ref><ref>''Beginning Synthesizer'' by Helen Casabona, David Frederick, Tom Darter, Alfred Publishing Company Inc, 1986, {{ISBN |0882843532}}</ref>
 
== Timbre ==
 
== ADSR ==
Most often the envelope generator is an ADSR (Attack Decay Sustain Release), which may be applied to overall [[amplitude]], [[frequency]], or [[Voltage controlled filter|filter]]. It is usually triggered by a [[gate]] signal from the keyboard.<ref name="q109">Synthesizers.com [http://www.synthesizers.com/q109.html Q109 Envelope Generator]</ref>
 
The contour of an ADSR envelope is specified using four parameters:
 
<!--== See also ==-->
{{From Wikipedia|Synthesizer}}
 
== References ==
{{From Wikipedia|Synthesizer}}
{{Reflist}}
{{Lacks references}}
 
== Further reading ==
* ''The Complete Guide to Synthesizers'' by Devarahi, Prentice Hall, 1982, {{ISBN |0-13-160630-1}}, pages 74-9174–91
 
== External links ==
* [https://github.com/micjamking/synth-secrets/blob/master/part-8.md Synth Secrets, Part 8: More About Envelopes]
* [http://173.201.189.104/forum/viewtopic.php?t=31473 What are all the ADSR's out there to build?] on electro-music.com
* Muff's Modules & More Forum:[https://www.muffwigglermodwiggler.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=83193 CEM3310 equivalent circuit]
=== Kits ===
* MFOS [httphttps://wwwweb.archive.org/web/20190614005053/http://musicfromouterspace.com/index.php?CATPARTNO=NONE&PROJARG=ADSR001%2FADSR001252FADSR001.html&MAINTAB=SYNTHDIY&VPW=1150&VPH=777 ADSR Envelope Generator]
* MFOS [httphttps://wwwweb.archive.org/web/20190614005048/http://musicfromouterspace.com/index.php?CATPARTNO=NONE&PROJARG=DUALARGENERATOR%2FDUALARGENERATOR252FDUALARGENERATOR.html&MAINTAB=SYNTHDIY&VPW=1150&VPH=777 Dual Attack Release Envelope Generator]
* [https://web.archive.org/web/20120815070312/http://www.cgs.synth.net/modules/cgs116_env.html Serge Extended ADSR Envelope Generator]
* Oakley [http://www.oakleysound.com/vc-adsr.htm Voltage Controlled ADSR and VCA module]
==== Readily available analogue IC and discrete component based ====
 
* Formant music synthesizer by [[C. Chapman]], Elektor, 1978, p. &nbsp;64, using [[Operational amplifier|op-amps]] and common [[discrete]] components
* [http://yusynth.net/Modular/EN/ADSR/index.html yusynth ADSR] has a [[555]] core with a few op-amps.
* ''[https://web.archive.org/web/20190613221410/https://sdiy.info/wiki/File:The_Reprint_Collection_by_Thomas_Henry_CC_BY_NC%3AThe_Reprint_Collection_by_Thomas_Henry_CC_BY_NC.pdf ADSR the Easy Way]'' by Thomas Henry, Polyphony, March/Apil 1982, pp. &nbsp;22,23,30,3I.
* [https://www.schmitzbits.de/adsr.html Envelope ADSR schematics on Schmitzbits] - 3 envelope schematics based on readily available components.
 
==== CEM IC based ====
 
* Digisound 80 [http://www.digisound80.co.uk/digisound/modules/80-10/80-10.htm 80-10 Voltage Controlled Envelope Generator], uses [[CEM3310]]. ''Electronic Music Circuits'' by [[Barry Klein]],1982, p. &nbsp;62-3, includes [[Charles Blakey]]'s independent trigger input modification.
* Digisound 80 [http://www.digisound80.co.uk/digisound/modules/80-8/80-8.htm 80-8 Dual ADSR], uses CEM3310
* Digisound 80 [http://www.digisound80.co.uk/digisound/modules/80-18/80-18.htm 80-18 Dual Multi-Function Envelope Generator], uses CEM3310