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[[File:ADSR parameter.svg|thumb|300px|The amplitude over time of an ADSR envelope. Only the positive half of the signal is shown.]] Sound synthesis techniques often employ an '''envelope generator''', '''contour generator''' or '''transient generator''' that controls some parameters of a signal or control voltage at any point in its duration. When it controls a [[VCA]] these together form an envelope shaper or loudness contour.<ref>''Synthesizers for musicians'' by R A Penfold, PC Publishing, 1989, ISBN
== Timbre ==
== ADSR ==
Most often the envelope generator is an ADSR (Attack Decay Sustain Release), which may be applied to overall [[amplitude]], [[frequency]], or [[filter]]. It is usually triggered by a [[gate]] signal from the keyboard.<ref name="q109">Synthesizers.com [http://www.synthesizers.com/q109.html Q109 Envelope Generator]</ref>
The contour of an ADSR envelope is specified using four parameters:
<!--== See also ==-->
== References ==
== Further reading ==
* ''The Complete Guide to Synthesizers'' by Devarahi, Prentice Hall, 1982, ISBN
== External links ==
* [https://github.com/micjamking/synth-secrets/blob/master/part-8.md Synth Secrets, Part 8: More About Envelopes]
* [http://22.214.171.124/forum/viewtopic.php?t=31473 What are all the ADSR's out there to build?] on electro-music.com
* Muff's Modules & More Forum:[https://www.
=== Kits ===
* MFOS [
* MFOS [
* [https://web.archive.org/web/20120815070312/http://www.cgs.synth.net/modules/cgs116_env.html Serge Extended ADSR Envelope Generator]
* Oakley [http://www.oakleysound.com/vc-adsr.htm Voltage Controlled ADSR and VCA module]
==== Readily available analogue IC and discrete component based ====
* Formant music synthesizer by [[C. Chapman]], Elektor, 1978, p.
* [http://yusynth.net/Modular/EN/ADSR/index.html yusynth ADSR] has a [] core with a few op-amps.
* [https://www.schmitzbits.de/adsr.html Envelope ADSR schematics on Schmitzbits] - 3 envelope schematics based on readily available components.
==== CEM IC based ====
* Digisound 80 [http://www.digisound80.co.uk/digisound/modules/80-10/80-10.htm 80-10 Voltage Controlled Envelope Generator], uses [[CEM3310]]. ''Electronic Music Circuits'' by [[Barry Klein]],1982, p.
* Digisound 80 [http://www.digisound80.co.uk/digisound/modules/80-8/80-8.htm 80-8 Dual ADSR], uses CEM3310
* Digisound 80 [http://www.digisound80.co.uk/digisound/modules/80-18/80-18.htm 80-18 Dual Multi-Function Envelope Generator], uses CEM3310